Slender Amaranth, Amaranthus viridis…Rau Dền Cơm ….#6

Slender Amaranth, Amaranthus viridis…Rau Dền Cơm ….#6
4th of july crafts
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Taken on July 7, 2012 in Waco city, Texas state, Southern of America.

Tôi đi lên núi chơi với ông xã , gặp được cây rau Dền Cơm, tôi thích quá, hái một túi nylon đem về để dành ăn, ở siêu thị đâu có bán những loại rau này, thèm muốn chết mà nghĩ chắc chỉ có chờ dịp về Viet Nam , quê mình mới có mà ăn , cảm ơn Chúa cho tôi tìm được nơi có rau này …hahaha …

Ngọn rau Dền Cơm giàu Calcium và chất sắt. Cả cây là nguồn dự trữ của Vitamin B và C.

The tops are rich in calcium and iron. The plant is a good source of vitamins B and C.

Vietnamese named : Dền Cơm.
Common names : Slender Amaranth, Kolitis,
Scientist name : Amaranthus viridis L.
Synonyms : Euxolus caudatus Naves, Euxolus viridis Moq., Amaranthus gracilis Desf. , Amaranthus polystachys Willd.
Family : Amaranthaceae / Amaranth famly. Họ Rau Dền.

Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass : Caryophyllidae
Order : Caryophyllales
Genus : Amaranthus L. – pigweed
Species : Amaranthus viridis L. – slender amaranth

**** www.lrc-hueuni.edu.vn/dongy/show_target.plx?url=/thuocdon…

Dền cơm – Amaranthus viridis L., thuộc họ Rau dền – Amaranthaceae.

Mô tả: Cỏ thường nhỏ, cao đến 80cm, đứng hay nằm ở gốc thường có một nhánh to, cong, thân to đến 5mm, không lông, không gai. Phiến lá xoan tròn dài, có khi hình bánh bò, dài 3-6cm, rộng 1,5-3cm, đầu tù, có khi lõm, không lông; cuống dài đến 10cm. Chuỳ hoa ở ngọn hay bông ở nách lá; hoa có 3 lá đài, 3 nhị, 2-3 đầu nhuỵ. Quả bế nhăn, chứa 1 hạt nâu đen, bóng, to 1mm.

Bộ phận dùng: Rễ và toàn cây – Radix et Herba Amaranthi Viridis.

Nơi sống và thu hái: Cây mọc ở đất hoang, dọc đường đi, và cũng được trồng lấy lá làm rau. Có thể thu hái quanh năm, rửa sạch, cắt đoạn phơi khô dùng.

Thành phần hoá học: Cành lá rau dền cơm chứa nước 84,5%, protid 3,4%, glucid 1,4%, cellulose 1,6%, vitamin C 63mg%, caroten 10,5mg%, vitamin B2 0,36mg%, vitmin PP 1,3mg%. Cũng có tác giả cho biết lượng vitamin C trong rau Dền cơm là khoảng 21mg%, xào ăn thì lượng vitamin C ít hao tổn hơn luộc.

Tính vị, tác dụng: Vị ngọt, nhạt, hơi hàn, có tác dụng thanh nhiệt khu thấp, thu liễm, chỉ tả.

Công dụng, chỉ định và phối hợp: Được dùng trị lỵ trực trùng và viêm trường vị cấp và mạn tính, cũng dùng trị rắn độc cắn. Ngày dùng 40-80g, sắc nước uống. Dùng ngoài lấy rễ tươi giã nát, lấy nước chiết uống và dùng bã đắp. Ở Ấn Độ, người ta dùng lá làm thuốc trị bò cạp đốt và dùng toàn cây trị rắn cắn.

Rau dền cơm còn là loại rau xào, luộc ăn ngon, có tác dụng dưỡng sinh. Kinh nghiệm dân gian là kỵ ăn với tiết canh (lợn, vịt) vì nếu ăn chung rau dền cơm luộc với tiết canh sẽ bị ỉa chảy dữ dội.

Đơn thuốc trị lỵ: Khi mới mắc bệnh, dùng 1/2 kg rau Dền cơm chia 4 lần nấu với nước, mỗi ngày uống 4 lần; ngày thứ hai dùng 1/4 kg cũng chia 4 lần nấu uống.

**** rausach-locxuan.com/2/1-5-16/rau-den.htm

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**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=AMVI
**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranthus_viridis
**** www.iewf.org/weedid/Amaranthus_viridis.htm

**** stuartxchange.com/Kolitis.html

Botany
Uray is an erect, smooth, branched unarmed herb, 30 to 60 centimeters high. Leaves are alternate, ovate, long-petioled, 4 to 10 centimeters long, obtuse tip, usually notched, base truncate or decurrent. Flowers are very small, densely disposed, green, 1 millimeter long. Sepals are 5, or 1 to 3, ovate to linear, often aristate. Inflorescences are terminal, axillary, simple or panicled, interrupted spikes. Fruits are compressed, indehiscent or circumcised utricles. Seeds are black or brown, orbicular.

Note: This herb differs from Amaranthus spinosus (Uray) in the absence of spines on the stems.

Distribution
– A common roadside weed on lowlands at low and medium altitudes.
– Probably introduced.
– Found in all warm countries.

Chemical constituents
The powdered leaves yield tannin, some reducing sugar and resin, but no alkaloid.

Parts utilized
· Roots.
· Harvest the root at any time of the year.
· Wash thoroughly, cut into pieces and sun-dry.
· The plant can be eaten as a vegetable.

Properties
· Similar to Uray (A. spinosus).
· Febrifuge.
· Emollent (leaves).
· Considered emollient and vermifuge.

Uses
Nutritional
Leaves and seeds are edible.
Eaten as vegetable.
The tops are rich in calcium and iron. The plant is a good source of vitamins B and C.
Study found it to be an excellent source of protein.
Folkloric
The plant isThe therapeutic properties and dosage are very nearly identical to Amaranthus spinosus (Uray).
Poultice of leaves for inflammations, boils and abscesses.
Use for acne and for skin cleansing.
Infusion of plant has been used as a diuretic and galactagogue.
Used for snake bites and scorpion stings.
Decoction of plant used for dysentery and inflammation.
In India, stem used as antidote for snake bites. Leaves used for scorpion stings. Traditionally used for constipation, inflammation, eczema, bronchitis, anemia and leprosy.
In Nepal, infusion of powdered seeds of flower used for stomach problems. Seeds also used in pregnant women to lessen labor pains.

Studies
• Flavonoids / Rutin / Quercetin: Study yielded flavonoids quercetin and rutin. Flavonoids possess biochemical effects – inhibition of enzymes, hormone regulation, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities, among other. Av presents itself as a good medicinal food.
• Antiviral: (1) Virucidal potential of some edible Nigerian vegetables: Extract from four leaves, including A viridis, used as edible vegetables, were test for antiviral activity. All the extracts showed dose-dependent antiviral activity. (2) A ribosome-inactivating protein from Amaranthus viridis: An antiviral protein, amaranthin, was isolated from AV.
• Antinociceptive / Antipyretic: Study of methanolic extract of the whole plant of Amaranthus viridis in mice reveals dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic activities.
• Pollen Grains / Allergenicity: Study concludes that airborne A. viridis pollen is the most prevalent pollen during August to November in the outdoor environment of Saudi Arabia, with a clear pattern of midday to early evening maxima.
• Anthelmintic: Three plants belonging to the Amaranthacea family – A spinosus, A caudatus and A viridis, traditionally used as vermicides, were studied for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Phretima posthuma). Study concludes all three plants possess potent anthelmintic activity compared to Piperazine.

Availability
Wild-crafted.

**** www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amaranthus+viridis : Click on link to read more, please.

Known Hazards No members of this genus are known to be poisonous, but when grown on nitrogen-rich soils they are known to concentrate nitrates in the leaves. This is especially noticeable on land where chemical fertilizers are used. Nitrates are implicated in stomach cancers, blue babies and some other health problems. It is inadvisable, therefore, to eat this plant if it is grown inorganically.
HabitatsA weed of waste ground and roadsides but the original habitat is obscure[144].

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.
Edible Uses:

Leaves – cooked as a spinach[46, 61, 144, 177, 183]. A mild flavour[K]. The leafy stems and flower clusters are similarly used[183]. On a zero moisture basis, 100g of leaves contains 283 calories, 34.2g protein, 5.3g fat, 44.1g carbohydrate, 6.6g fibre, 16.4g ash, 2243mg calcium, 500mg phosphorus, 27mg iron, 336mg sodium, 2910mg potassium, 50mg vitamin A, 0.07mg thiamine, 2.43mg riboflavin, 11.8mg niacin and 790mg ascorbic acid[218]. Seed – cooked. Very small, about 1mm in diameter[266], but it is easy to harvest and very nutritious[K]. The seed can be cooked whole, and becomes very gelatinous like this, but it is rather difficult to crush all of the small seeds in the mouth and thus some of the seed will pass right through the digestive system without being assimilated[K]. The seed contains 14 – 16% protein and 4.7 – 7% fat[218].
Composition
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Dry weight)
283 Calories per 100g
Water : 0%
Protein: 34.2g; Fat: 5.3g; Carbohydrate: 44.1g; Fibre: 6.6g; Ash: 16.4g;
Minerals – Calcium: 2243mg; Phosphorus: 500mg; Iron: 27mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 336mg; Potassium: 2910mg; Zinc: 0mg;
Vitamins – A: 50mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.07mg; Riboflavin (B2): 2.43mg; Niacin: 11.8mg; B6: 0mg; C: 790mg;

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Astringent; Vermifuge.

A decoction of the entire plant is used to stop dysentery and inflammation[218]. The plant is emollient and vermifuge[218, 240]. The root juice is used to treat inflammation during urination[272]. It is also taken to treat constipation[272].
Other Uses
Dye.

Yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the whole plant[168].
Cultivation details
Prefers a well-drained fertile soil in a sunny position[200]. Requires a hot sheltered position if it is to do well[K]. Plants should not be given inorganic fertilizers, see notes above on toxicity. Cultivated as a food plant in the tropics[46]. Should this plant be called A. caudatus. L. ‘Viridis'[200]? Most if not all members of this genus photosynthesize by a more efficient method than most plants. Called the ‘C4 carbon-fixation pathway’, this process is particularly efficient at high temperatures, in bright sunlight and under dry conditions[196].

Propagation
Seed – sow late spring in situ. An earlier sowing can be made in a greenhouse and the plants put out after the last expected frosts. Germination is usually rapid and good if the soil is warm[133]. A drop in temperature overnight aids germination[133]. Cuttings of growing plants root easily[206].