Pomegranate, Punica granatum……Cây Lựu ở Texas ….#9

Pomegranate, Punica granatum……Cây Lựu ở Texas ….#9
4th of july decorations
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Taken on July 29, 2012 in Hewitt city, Texas state, Southern of America.

Vườn nhà anh Ba Tuấn cũng trồng Lựu, được hai cây, năm ngoái cây có đầy trái nhìn như những chùm lồng đèn đỏ nho nhỏ xinh xinh, năm nay coi bộ ít trái nhưng trái nào cũng to và đẹp hơn năm ngoái.

Ba Tuan ‘s garden plants two of pomegranate plants, too. They hanged many fruits in last year, the fruits look like pretty small red lanterns hanged on the branches , But this year looks they will not bear many fruits , Despite this, the fruits are bigger than the fruits of last year.

Vietnamese named : Lựu, Thạch Lựu, Thừu Lựu
Common names : Pomegranate
Scientist name : Punica granatum L.
Synonyms :
Family : Punicaceae – Pomegranate family or Lythraceae ( Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. )
Group : Dicot
Duration : Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree Shrub

Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass : Rosidae
Order : Myrtales
Genus : Punica L. – pomegranate
Species :Punica granatum L. – pomegranate

**** www.dongyhongduc.com/content/detail/6/518
Lựu còn có tên là Thạch lựu, Thừu lựu. Đây là loại cây trồng để lấy quả ăn, làm cây cảnh và làm thuốc chữa bệnh.

Tên khoa học: Punica granatum. Họ Punicaceae (Họ lựu)
Mô tả : Lựu là loài cây lâu năm. Lá đơn, nguyên, mọc đối, cuống ngắn. Hoa mọc đơn độc hoặc tụ họp thành cụm 3-4 cái ở ngọn cành, hoa màu đỏ tươi, nở vào mùa hè. Hoa có 5-6 lá đài hợp ở gốc, 5-6 cánh hoa màu đỏ, rất nhiều nhị bầu nhiều ô chứa nhiều noãn xếp chồng lên nhau. Quả mọng hình cầu có vỏ dày, đầu quả còn 4 – 5 lá đài tồn tại; vỏ quả dày, khi chín màu vàng, đỏ. Trong quả có vách ngang chia thành 2 ngăn chứa nhiều hạt 5 cạnh, có vỏ hạt mọng, sắc hồng trắng.
Thành phấn hóa học:
Vỏ quả và vỏ rễ chứa nhiều tanin, granatin, hoạt chất peletierin, izopeletierin, acit betulic, acid usolic và iso quercetin. Nước ép lựu là nguồn kali, vitamin C và các chất chống ôxy hoá quý.
Dịch quả chứa acid citric, ac.malie, các đường glucoza, fructoza, mantoza…
Theo YHCT, vỏ quả vị chua, chát, tính ấm có tác dụng chỉ tả (Ngưng đi cầu), chỉ huyết (Cầm máu), khử trùng.
Vỏ thân, vỏ rễ vị đắng chát, tính ấm, sát trùng. Vỏ thân rễ dùng tẩy sán.
Công dụng: Theo YHHĐ, với những nghiên cứu trên thực nghiệm và lâm sàng, đã rút ra những nhận xét sau:
Trái lựu được coi là một siêu thực phẩm trong nhiều thế kỷ qua. Loại trái cây này rất giàu vitamin A, C và E cũng như sắt và chất chống ôxy hóa. Những chất hóa học này có thể giúp trung hòa các phân tử gốc tự do.
Nghiên cứu của các nhà khoa học thuộc Đại học Queen Margaret (Anh), được công bố năm 2010, cũng đã phát hiện nước ép trái lựu có thể giúp giảm căng thẳng và giảm nếp nhăn trên da ở độ tuổi trung niên.
1.Cải thiện sức khỏe của tim:
Lựu chứa nhiều polyphenol, chất hóa học thực vật nổi tiếng trong việc làm giảm quá trình sưng phù liên quan đến bệnh tim
2.Giảm huyết áp và nguy cơ đột quỵ:
Uống nước lựu hoặc trộn với nước khoáng xen kẻ hoặc cocktail. Bên cạnh đó, nên dùng nước lựu thay cho các loại nước khác trong một số công thức chế biến món ăn hoặc đồ uống.
3. Giảm stress: uống nước ép lựu để làm giảm bớt căng thẳng mãn tính và duy trì một sức khỏe tốt.
4.Nước ép lựu làm giảm xơ vữa động mạch: Những nghiên cứu lâm sàng cho thấy một phần của một chế độ ăn uống lành mạnh với lựu hàng ngày có thể giúp ngăn ngừa bệnh tim, đau tim và đột quỵ. Nguyên nhân do lựu có khả năng làm loãng máu, tăng lưu lượng máu đến tim, giảm huyết áp, giảm mảng bám trong động mạch và làm giảm cholesterol xấu trong khi tăng cholesterol tốt bảo vệ cơ thể.
5.Điều trị viêm nhiễm và các rối loạn về da, tiêu hóa: Lựu có chứa nhiều punicalagins, một chống oxy hóa mạnh mẽ. Khả năng chống oxy hóa có trong trái lựu gấp nhiều lần so với rượu vang đỏ và trà xanh.
6.Cải thiện khả năng cương dương: những người uống nước lựu trong 4 tuần thì sẽ cải thiện sự cương dương lên gấp hai lần so với những người dùng giả dược (placebo)
7.Có thể tăng tỉ trọng xương: Grotto đã trích dẫn một cuộc nghiên cứu trong đó những con chuột được cho ăn chiết xuất từ lựu trong hai tuần đã ít rơi vào tình trạng “mất xương” hơn đáng kể so với những con chuột khônng ăn lựu.
Theo YHCT, quả lựu thường sử dụng trong các trường hợp sau:
1- Lao phổi, viêm phế quản mạn tính ở người già: quả lựu tươi chưa chín 1 quả, bóc lấy hạt ăn vào buổi tối trước khi đi ngủ.
2- Trẻ em có tích trệ ăn không tiêu, có ký sinh trùng đường ruột dùng nước ép hạt lựu thêm đường và nước cho uống. Tuy hiệu quả kém nhưng an toàn hơn vỏ rễ lựu
3-Trẻ em bị ăn không tiêu, đầy bụng, tiêu chảy…): lấy quả lựu muối nấu cháo cho trẻ ăn.
Cách làm quả lựu muối: hái quả lựu chín tốt nhất là những quả chín nứt vỏ, cho vào thố (vại, lọ…), rắc muối, đậy kín đem phơi nắng, mỗi ngày trở vài lần. Một thời gian vỏ lựu mềm, nước từ trong quả lựu thoát ra ngoài hoà lẫn nước muối. Tiếp tục làm như vậy cho đến khi khô nước thì lấy lựu ra cất vào hũ. Cất càng lâu công hiệu càng cao.
4- Phòng ngừa ra nhiều mồ hôi vào mùa hè: – nấu canh cho một số hạt lựu tươi. Canh này còn phòng chữa chứng đau đầu ở phụ nữ và giúp trẻ em tiêu hoá tốt.
5- Ăn nhiều thịt khó tiêu, phụ nữ bạch đới, kinh nguyệt quá nhiều: dùng quả lựu muối nấu với canh thịt heo ăn.
6- Viêm loét trong miệng: lựu tươi 1-2 quả, lấy hạt giã nát, ngâm vào nước sôi rồi lọc lấy nước để nguội ngậm nhiều lần trong ngày.
7- Tiêu hoá kém, đau bụng, tiêu chảy: lựu 2-3 quả bỏ vỏ lấy cùi với một chén rưỡi nước sắc lấy nửa chén rồi đổ vào một ít mật ong, uống làm 2-3 lần trong ngày.
8- Đại tiện ra máu, tiêu chảy kéo dài: ruột quả lựu sấy khô, tán bột. Mỗi lần 10-12g với nước cơm. Hoặc 1 quả lựu tươi nguyên vỏ giã nát sắc với mấy hạt muối để uống.
9- Sâu răng: vỏ thân cây lựu hoặc vỏ quả sắc đặc ngậm nghiêng về phía răng sâu.
10- Khô miệng, viêm họng, loét lưỡi: bóc lấy hạt của 1-2 quả lựu tươi nhai chậm kỹ nuốt nước.
11- Trĩ loét chảy máu: vỏ quả lựu 50 – 100g sắc lấy nước xông rửa hậu môn.
12- Nước ngâm rửa khi bị khí hư (Huyết trắng): vỏ quả lựu 30g, phèn chua 10g sắc lấy nước ngâm rửa.
13- Ghẻ ngứa: vỏ quả lựu sắc để ngâm, tán bôi lên chỗ tổn thương – có thể ngâm vào rượu hoặc cồn để dùng hoặc lá lựu tươi giã nhuyễn xoa xát.
Ngoài ra, lựu còn được sử dụng trong sắc đẹp của phụ nữ.
1.Làm đẹp da và ngăn chặn quá trình lão hóa da
Lựu có chứa chất flavonoid có tác dụng chống kích ứng da. giúp da không bị khô, hiệu ứng cân bằng trên da, giúp tế bào trao đổi chất tối ưu, đảm bảo làn da mềm mại. Chiếc xuất từ thịt quả lựu tham gia vào quá trình cân bằng loại da hỗn hợp, lọc và làm sạch lỗ chân lông và tái tạo da mới.

Đối với phụ nữ, uống nước lựu thường xuyên cũng ngăn cản rất tốt quá trình lão hóa, giúp da tươi trẻ, mịn màng.
Nên bổ sung nước ép lựu vào thực đơn nước uống của mình vì nó chứa nhiều thành phần ôxy hoá rất tốt cho sức khoẻ và làm đẹp da.
Dầu chiết xuất từ hạt lựu có tác dụng làm dịu da bị kích thích và khắc phục tình trạng da khô.
2.Tác dụng khác:
Nước ép từ lựu có thể giúp ngừa ung thư, rất tốt cho hệ tim mạch và thậm chí còn giúp tăng hưng phấn tình dục. Ngoài ra, nước quả lựu giàu chất chống oxy hóa polyphenol ngừa được nhiều bệnh ung thư, có tác dụng khử trùng, giúp làn da nhanh lành, giảm nguy cơ mắc các bệnh ở phụ nữ thời tiền mãn kinh. Nước quả lựu còn giúp làm giảm lượng cholestrol xấu trong cơ thể tới 20%.
PGS.TS.LƯU THỊ HIỆP

**** vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%E1%BB%B1u
**** www.uphcm.edu.vn/caythuoc/index.php?q=node/317

___________________________________________________

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PUGR2
**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomegranate
**** www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Punica+granatum
**** www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15298776 : Study on wound healing activity of Punica granatum peel.
**** www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12801361 : Use of Punica granatum as an antifungal agent against candidosis associated with denture stomatitis.
**** www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18590349 : Therapeutic applications of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): a review.

**** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/pomegranate.html
Steeped in history and romance and almost in a class by itself, the pomegranate, Punica granatum L., belongs to the family Punicaceae which includes only one genus and two species, the other one, little-known, being P. protopunica Balf. peculiar to the island of Socotra.
Despite its ancient background, the pomegranate has acquired only a relatively few commonly recognized vernacular names apart from its many regional epithets in India, most of which are variations on the Sanskrit dadima or dalim, and the Persian dulim or dulima. By the French it is called grenade; by the Spanish, granada (the fruit), granado (the plant); by the Dutch, granaatappel, and Germans, granatapfel; by the Italians, melogranato, melograno granato, pomo granato, or pomo punico. In Indonesia, it is gangsalan; in Thailand, tab tim; and in Malaya, delima. Brazilians know it as roma, romeira or romazeira. The Quecchi Indian name in Guatemala is granad. The Samoan name is limoni. The generic term, Punica, was the Roman name for Carthage from whence the best pomegranates came to Italy.

Plate XLIX: POMEGRANATE, Punica granatum Description

An attractive shrub or small tree, to 20 or 30 ft (6 or 10 m) high, the pomegranate is much-branched, more or less spiny, and extremely long-lived, some specimens at Versailles known to have survived two centuries. It has a strong tendency to sucker from the base. The leaves are evergreen or deciduous, opposite or in whorls of 5 or 6, short-stemmed, oblong-lanceolate, 3/8 to 4 in (1-10 cm) long, leathery. Showy flowers are home on the branch tips singly or as many as 5 in a cluster. They are 1 1/4 in (3 cm) wide and characterized by the thick, tubular, red calyx having 5 to 8 fleshy, pointed sepals forming a vase from which emerge the 3 to 7 crinkled, red, white or variegated petals enclosing the numerous stamens. Nearly round, but crowned at the base by the prominent calyx, the fruit, 2 1/2 to 5 in (6.25-12.5 cm) wide, has a tough, leathery skin or rind, basically yellow more or less overlaid with light or deep pink or rich red. The interior is separated by membranous walls and white spongy tissue (rag) into compartments packed with transparent sacs filled with tart, flavorful, fleshy, juicy, red, pink or whitish pulp (technically the aril). In each sac, there is one white or red, angular, soft or hard seed. The seeds represent about 52% of the weight of the whole fruit.

Origin and Distribution

The pomegranate tree is native from Iran to the Himalayas in northern India and has been cultivated since ancient times throughout the Mediterranean region of Asia, Africa and Europe. The fruit was used in many ways as it is today and was featured in Egyptian mythology and art, praised in the Old Testament of the Bible and in the Babylonian Talmud, and it was carried by desert caravans for the sake of its thirst-quenching juice. It traveled to central and southern India from Iran about the first century A.D. and was reported growing in Indonesia in 1416. It has been widely cultivated throughout India and drier parts of southeast Asia, Malaya, the East Indies and tropical Africa. The most important growing regions are Egypt, China, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, India, Burma and Saudi Arabia. There are some commercial orchards in Israel on the coastal plain and in the Jordan Valley.

It is rather commonly planted and has become naturalized in Bermuda where it was first recorded in 1621, but only occasionally seen in the Bahamas, West Indies and warm areas of South and Central America. Many people grow it at cool altitudes in the interior of Honduras. In Mexico it is frequently planted, and it is sometimes found in gardens in Hawaii. The tree was introduced in California by Spanish settlers in 1769. It is grown for its fruit mostly in the dry zones of that state and Arizona. In California, commercial pomegranate cultivation is concentrated in Tulare, Fresno and Kern counties, with small plantings in Imperial and Riverside counties. There were 2,000 acres (810 ha) of hearing trees in these areas in the 1920’s. Production declined from lack of demand in the 1930’s but new plantings were made when demand increased in the 1960’s.

Cultivars

There is little information available on the types grown in the Near East, except that the cultivars ‘Ahmar’, ‘Aswad’, ‘Halwa’ are important in Iraq, and ‘Mangulati’ in Saudi Arabia. ‘Wonderful’ and ‘Red Loufani’ are often grown in the Jewish sector of Israel, while the sweeter, less tangy ‘Malissi’ and ‘Ras el Baghl’, are favored in the Arab sector.

In India there are several named cultivars. Preference is usually given those with fleshy, juicy pulp around the seeds. Types with relatively soft seeds are often classed as "seedless". Among the best are ‘Bedana’ and ‘Kandhari’. ‘Bedana’ is medium to large, with brownish or whitish rind, pulp pinkish-white, sweet, seeds soft. ‘Kandhari’ is large, deep-red, with deep-pink or blood-red, subacid pulp and hard seeds. Others include:

‘Alandi’ (‘Vadki’)–medium-sized, with fleshy red or pink, subacid pulp, very hard seeds.

‘Dholka’–large, yellow-red, with patches of dark-pink and purple at base, or all-over greenish-white; thick rind, fleshy, purplish-white or white, sweet, pulp; hard seeds. The plant is evergreen, non-suckering, desirable for commercial purposes in Delhi.

‘Kabul’–large, with dark-red and pale-yellow rind; fleshy, dark-red, sweet, slightly bitter pulp.

‘Muscat Red’–small to medium, with thin or fairly thick rind, fleshy, juicy, medium-sweet pulp, soft or medium-hard seeds. The plant is a moderately prolific bearer.

‘Paper Shell’–round, medium to large, pale-yellow blushed with pink; with very thin rind, fleshy, reddish or pink, sweet, very juicy pulp and soft seeds. Bears heavily.

‘Poona’–large, with dark-red, gray or grayish-green rind, sometimes spotted, and orange-red or pink-and-red pulp.

‘Spanish Ruby’–round, small to medium or large; bright-red, with thin rind, fleshy, rose-colored, sweet, aromatic pulp, and small to medium, fairly soft seeds. Considered medium in quality.

‘Vellodu’–medium to large, with medium-thick rind, fleshy, juicy pulp and medium-hard seeds.

‘Muscat White’–large, creamy-white tinged with pink; thin rind; fleshy, cream-colored, sweet pulp; seeds medium-hard. Bears well. Desirable for commercial planting in Delhi.

‘Wonderful’–originated as a cutting in Florida and propagated in California in 1896. The fruit is oblate, very large, dark purple-red, with medium-thick rind; deep-red, juicy, winey pulp; medium-hard seeds. Plant is vigorous and productive.

In California, ‘Spanish Ruby’ and ‘Sweet Fruited’ were the leading cultivars in the past century, but were superseded by ‘Wonderful’. In recent years ‘Wonderful’ is losing ground to the more colorful ‘Grenada’.

Mexicans take especial pride in the pomegranates of Tehuacan, Puebla. Many cultivars are grown, including ‘Granada de China’ and ‘Granada Agria’.

The Japanese dwarf pomegranate, P. granatum var. nana, is especially hardy and widely grown as an ornamental in pots. The flowers are scarlet, the fruit only 2 in (5 cm) wide but borne abundantly. Among other ornamental cultivars are ‘Multiplex’ with double, creamy white blooms; ‘Chico’, double, orange-red; ‘Pleniflora’, double, red; ‘Rubra Plena’, double, red; ‘Mme. Legrelle’ and ‘Variegata’, double, scarlet bordered and streaked with yellowish-white.

Pollination

The pomegranate is both self-pollinated and cross-pollinated by insects. There is very little wind dispersal of pollen. Self-pollination of bagged flowers has resulted in 45% fruit set. Cross-pollination has increased yield to 68%. In hermaphrodite flowers, 6 to 20% of the pollen may be infertile; in male, 14 to 28%. The size and fertility of the pollen vary with the cultivar and season.

Climate

The species is primarily mild-temperate to subtropical and naturally adapted to regions with cool winters and hot summers, but certain types are grown in home dooryards in tropical areas, such as various islands of the Bahamas and West Indies. In southern Florida, fruit development is enhanced after a cold winter. Elsewhere in the United States, the pomegranate can be grown outdoors as far north as Washington County, Utah, and Washington, D.C., though it doesn’t fruit in the latter locations. It can be severely injured by temperatures below 12º F (-11.11º C). The plant favors a semi-arid climate and is extremely drought -tolerant.

Soil

The pomegranate thrives on calcareous, alkaline soil and on deep, acidic loam and a wide range of soils in between these extremes. In northern India, it is spontaneous on rockstrewn gravel.

Propagation

Pomegranate seeds germinate readily even when merely thrown onto the surface of loose soil and the seedlings spring up with vigor. However, to avoid seedling variation, selected cultivars are usually reproduced by means of hardwood cuttings 10 to 20 in (25-50 cm) long. Treatment with 50 ppm. indole-butyric acid and planting at a moisture level of 15.95% greatly enhances root development and survival. The cuttings are set in beds with 1 or 2 buds above the soil for 1 year, and then transplanted to the field. Grafting has never been successful but branches may be air-layered and suckers from a parent plant can be taken up and transplanted.

Culture

Rooted cuttings or seedlings are set out in pre-fertilized pits 2 ft (60 cm) deep and wide and are spaced 12 to 18 ft (3.5-5.5 m) apart, depending on the fertility of the soil. Initially, the plants are cut back to 24 to 30 in (60-75 cm) in height and after they branch out the lower branches are pruned to provide a clear main stem. Inasmuch as fruits are borne only at the tips of new growth, it is recommended that, for the first 3 years, the branches be judiciously shortened annually to encourage the maximum number of new shoots on all sides, prevent straggly development, and achieve a strong, well-framed plant. After the 3rd year, only suckers and dead branches are removed.

For good fruit production, the plant must be irrigated. In Israel, brackish water is utilized with no adverse effect. In California, irrigation water is supplied by overhead sprinklers which also provide frost protection during cold spells. The pomegranate may begin to bear in 1 year after planting out, but 2 1/2 to 3 years is more common.

Harvesting and Yield

The fruits ripen 6 to 7 months after flowering. In Israel, cultivar ‘Wonderful’ is deemed ready for harvest when the soluble solids (SSC) reach 15%. In California, maturity has been equated with 1.8% titratable acidity (TA) and SSC of 17% or more. The fruit cannot be ripened off the tree even with ethylene treatment. Growers generally consider the fruit ready for harvest if it makes a metallic sound when tapped. The fruit must be picked before over maturity when it tends to crack open if rained upon or under certain conditions of atmospheric humidity, dehydration by winds, or insufficient irrigation. Of course, one might assume that ultimate splitting is the natural means of seed release and dispersal.

The fruits should not be pulled off but clipped close to the base so as to leave no stem to cause damage in handling and shipping. Appearance is important, especially in the United States where pomegranates may be purchased primarily to enhance table arrangements and other fall (harvest-time) decorations. Too much sun exposure causes sunscald–brown, russeted blemishes and roughening of the rind.

The fruit ships well, cushioned with paper or straw, in wooden crates or, for nearby markets, in baskets. Commercial California growers grade the fruits into 8 sizes, pack in layers, unwrapped but topped with shredded plastic, in covered wood boxes, precool rapidly, and ship in refrigerated trucks.

Keeping Quality and Storage

The pomegranate is equal to the apple in having a long storage life. It is best maintained at a temperature of 32º to 41º F (0º-5º C). The fruits improve in storage, become juicier and more flavorful; may be kept for a period of 7 months within this temperature range and at 80 to 85% relative humidity, without shrinking or spoiling. At 95% relative humidity, the fruit can be kept only 2 months at 41º F (5º C); for longer periods at 50º F (10º C). After prolonged storage, internal breakdown is evidenced by faded, streaky pulp of flat flavor. ‘Wonderful’ pomegranates, stored in Israel for Christmas shipment to Europe, are subject to superficial browning ("husk scald"). Control has been achieved by delaying harvest and storing in 2% O2 at 35.6º F (2º C). Subsequent transfer to 68º F (20º C) dispels off-flavor from ethanol accumulation.

Pests and Diseases

The pomegranate butterfly, Virachola isocrates, lays eggs on flower-buds and the calyx of developing fruits; in a few days the caterpillars enter the fruit by way of the calyx. These fruit borers may cause loss of an entire crop unless the flowers are sprayed 2 times 30 days apart. A stem borer sometimes makes holes right through the branches. Twig dieback may be caused by either Pleuroplaconema or Ceuthospora Phyllosticta. Discoloration of fruits and seeds results from infestation by Aspergillus castaneus. The fruits may be sometimes disfigured by Sphaceloma punicae. Dry rot from Phomopsis sp. or Zythia versoniana may destroy as much as 80% of the crop unless these organisms are controlled by appropriate spraying measures. Excessive rain during the ripening season may induce soft rot. A post-harvest rot caused by Alternaria solani was observed in India in 1974. It is particularly prevalent in cracked fruits.

Minor problems are leaf and fruit spot caused by Cercospora, Gloeosporium and Pestalotia sp.; also foliar damage by whitefly, thrips, mealybugs and scale insects; and defoliation by Euproctis spp. and Archyophora dentula. Termites may infest the trunk. In India, paper or plastic bags or other covers may be put over the fruits to protect them from borers, birds, bats and squirrels.

Food Uses

For enjoying out-of-hand or at the table, the fruit is deeply scored several times vertically and then broken apart; then the clusters of juice sacs can be lifted out of the rind and eaten. Italians and other pomegranate fanciers consider this not a laborious handicap but a social, family or group activity, prolonging the pleasure of dining.

In some countries, such as Iran, the juice is a very popular beverage. Most simply, the juice sacs are removed from the fruit and put through a basket press. Otherwise, the fruits are quartered and crushed, or the whole fruits may be pressed and the juice strained out. In Iran, the cut-open fruits may be stomped by a person wearing special shoes in a clay tub and the juice runs through outlets into clay troughs. Hydraulic extraction of juice should be at a pressure of less than 100 psi to avoid undue yield of tannin. The juice from crushed whole fruits contains excess tannin from the rind (as much as .175%) and this is precipitated out by a gelatin process. After filtering, the juice may be preserved by adding sodium benzoate or it may be pasteurized for 30 minutes, allowed to settle for 2 days, then strained and bottled. For beverage purposes, it is usually sweetened. Housewives in South Carolina make pomegranate jelly by adding 7 1/2 cups of sugar and 1 bottle of liquid pectin for every 4 cups of juice. In Saudi Arabia, the juice sacs may be frozen intact or the extracted juice may be concentrated and frozen, for future use. Pomegranate juice is widely made into grenadine for use in mixed drinks. In the Asiatic countries it may be made into a thick sirup for use as a sauce. It is also often converted into wine.

In the home kitchen, the juice can be easily extracted by reaming the halved fruits on an ordinary orange-juice squeezer.

In northern India, a major use of the wild fruits is for the preparation of "anardana"–the juice sacs being dried in the sun for 10 to 15 days and then sold as a spice.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Calories : 63-78
Moisture : 72.6-86.4 g
Protein : 0.05-1.6 g
Fat: Trace only to : 0.9 g
Carbohydrates : 15.4-19.6 g
Fiber : 3.4-5.0 g
Ash : 0.36-0.73 g
Calcium : 3-12 mg
Phosphorus : 8-37 mg
Iron : 0.3-1.2 mg
Sodium : 3 mg
Potassium : 259 mg
Carotene : None to Trace
Thiamine : 0.003 mg
Riboflavin: 0.012-0.03 mg
Niacin : 0.180-0.3 mg
Ascorbic Acid : 4-4.2 mg
Citric Acid : 0.46-3.6 mg
Boric Acid : 0.005 mg
*Analyses of fresh juice sacs made by various investigators.

Toxicity

A tannin content of no more than 0.25% in the edible portion is the desideratum. Many studies have shown that tannin is carcinogenic and excessive ingestion of tannin from one or more sources, over a prolonged period, is detrimental to health. (See also "Medicinal Uses" regarding overdoses of bark.)

Other Uses

All parts of the tree have been utilized as sources of tannin for curing leather. The trunk bark contains 10 to 25% tannin and was formerly important in the production of Morocco leather. The root bark has a 28% tannin content, the leaves, 11%, and the fruit rind as much as 26%. The latter is a by-product of the "anardana" industry. Both the rind and the flowers yield dyes for textiles. Ink can be made by steeping the leaves in vinegar. In Japan, an insecticide is derived from the bark. The pale-yellow wood is very hard and, while available only in small dimensions, is used for walking-sticks and in woodcrafts.

Medicinal Uses: The juice of wild pomegranates yields citric acid and sodium citrate for pharmaceutical purposes. Pomegranate juice enters into preparations for treating dyspepsia and is considered beneficial in leprosy.

The bark of the stem and root contains several alkaloids including isopelletierine which is active against tapeworms. Either a decoction of the bark, which is very bitter, or the safer, insoluble Pelletierine Tannate may be employed. Overdoses are emetic and purgative, produce dilation of pupila, dimness of sight, muscular weakness and paralysis.

Because of their tannin content, extracts of the bark, leaves, immature fruit and fruit rind have been given as astringents to halt diarrhea, dysentery and hemorrhages. Dried, pulverized flower buds are employed as a remedy for bronchitis. In Mexico, a decoction of the flowers is gargled to relieve oral and throat inflammation. Leaves, seeds, roots and bark have displayed hypotensive, antispasmodic and anthelmintic activity in bioassay.