Harpoon (missile) tubes

Harpoon (missile) tubes
4th of july crafts
Image by Alex Drennan
The Harpoon is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system, developed and manufactured by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing Defense, Space & Security). In 2004, Boeing delivered the 7,000th Harpoon unit since the weapon’s introduction in 1977. The missile system has also been further developed into a land-strike weapon, the Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM).

The regular Harpoon uses active radar homing, and a low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory to improve survivability and lethality. The missile’s launch platforms include:
Fixed-wing aircraft (the AGM-84, without the solid-fuel rocket booster)
Surface ships (the RGM-84, fitted with a solid-fuel rocket booster that detaches when expended, to allow the missile’s main turbojet to maintain flight)
Submarines (the UGM-84, fitted with a solid-fuel rocket booster and encapsulated in a container to enable submerged launch through a torpedo tube);
Coastal defense batteries, from which it would be fired with a solid-fuel rocket booster.

Contents [hide]
1 Development 1.1 Harpoon Block 1D
1.2 SLAM ATA (Block 1G)
1.3 Harpoon Block 1J
1.4 Harpoon Block II
1.5 Harpoon Block III

2 Operational history
3 Operators
4 General characteristics
5 See also
6 References
7 External links


In 1965 the U.S. Navy began studies for a missile in the 45 km (25 nm) range class for use against surfaced submarines. The name Harpoon was assigned to the project (i.e. a harpoon to kill "whales", a naval slang term for submarines).The Harpoon was introduced in 1977 after the sinking of the Israeli destroyer Eilat in 1967 by a Soviet-built Styx anti-ship missile from an Egyptian missile boat. Initially developed as an air-launched missile for the United States Navy P-3 Orion patrol aircraft, the Harpoon has been adapted for use on U.S. Air Force B-52H bombers, which can carry up to 12 of the missiles. The Harpoon missile has been purchased by many American allies, especially by the NATO countries, as well as Australia, Japan, Pakistan and South Korea, among others.

The Harpoon has also been adapted for carriage on the F-16 Fighting Falcon, in operation with the U.S. Air Force, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United Arab Emirates. It has been carried by several U.S. Navy aircraft, including the P-3 Orion patrol plane, the A-6 Intruder, the S-3 Viking, the AV-8B Harrier II, and the F/A-18 Hornet.

The Royal Australian Air Force is capable of firing AGM-84 series missiles from its F/A-18F Super Hornets, F/A-18A/B Hornets, and AP-3C Orion aircraft, and previously from the now retired F-111C/G Aardvarks. The Royal Australian Navy deploys the Harpoon on major surface combatants and in the Collins-class submarines. The Spanish Air Force and the Chilean Navy are also AGM-84D customers, and they deploy the missiles on surface ships, and F/A-18s, F-16s, and P-3 Orion aircraft. The British Royal Navy deploys the Harpoon on several types of surface ship.

The Canadian frigate HMCS Regina fires a Harpoon anti-ship missile during a Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) sinking exercise
The Royal Canadian Navy carries Harpoon missiles on its Halifax-class frigates. The Royal New Zealand Air Force is looking at adding the capability of carrying a stand-off missile, probably Harpoon or AGM-65 Maverick, on its six P-3 Orion patrol planes once they have all been upgraded to P3K2 standard.

The Republic of Singapore Air Force also operates five modified Fokker 50 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA) which are fitted with the sensors needed to fire the Harpoon missile. The Pakistani Navy carries the Harpoon missile on its naval frigates and P-3C Orions. The Turkish Navy carries Harpoons on surface warships and Type 209 submarines. The Turkish Air Force will be armed with the SLAM-ER.

At least 339 Harpoon missiles were sold to the Republic of China Air Force (Taiwan) for its F-16 A/B Block 20 fleet and the Taiwanese Navy, which operates four guided-missile destroyers and sixteen guided-missile frigates with the capability of carrying the Harpoon, include the eight former U.S. Navy Knox-class frigates and the eight locally built derivative of the Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates. The four former USN Kidd-class destroyers which have been sold to Taiwan can also carry Harpoon missiles, as can the 2 Zwaardvis/Hai Lung submarines and 12 P-3C Orion aircraft.

The Block 1 missiles were designated AGM/RGM/UGM-84A in US service and UGM-84B in the UK. Block 1B standard missiles were designated AGM/RGM/UGM-84C, Block 1C missiles were designated AGM/RGM/UGM-84D. Block 1 used a terminal attack mode that included a pop-up to approximately 1800m before diving on the target; Block 1B omitted the terminal pop-up; and Block 1C provided a selectable terminal attack mode.[2]

Harpoon Block 1D[edit]

This version featured a larger fuel tank and re-attack capability, but was not produced in large numbers because its intended mission (warfare with the Warsaw Pact countries of Eastern Europe) was considered to be unlikely following the events of 1991–92. Range is 278 km. Block 1D missiles were designated RGM/AGM-84F. In Block 1D

SLAM ATA (Block 1G)[edit]

This version, under development, gives the SLAM a re-attack capability, as well as an image comparison capability similar to the Tomahawk cruise missile; that is, the weapon can compare the target scene in front of it with an image stored in its on-board computer during terminal phase target acquisition and lock on.[3] Block 1G missiles AGM/RGM/UGM-84G, and the SLAM-ER missiles are designated AGM-84H.

Harpoon Block 1J[edit]

Block 1J was a proposal for a further upgrade, AGM/RGM/UGM-84J Harpoon (or Harpoon 2000), for use against both ship and land targets.

Harpoon Block II[edit]

Loading Mk 141 canister launcher
In production at Boeing facilities in Saint Charles, Missouri, is the Harpoon Block II, intended to offer an expanded engagement envelope, enhanced resistance to electronic countermeasures and improved targeting. Specifically, the Harpoon was initially designed as an open-ocean weapon. The Block II missiles continue progress begun with Block IE, and the Block II missile provides the Harpoon with a littoral-water anti-ship capability.

The key improvements of the Harpoon Block II are obtained by incorporating the inertial measurement unit from the Joint Direct Attack Munition program, and the software, computer, Global Positioning System (GPS)/inertial navigation system and GPS antenna/receiver from the SLAM Expanded Response (SLAM-ER), an upgrade to the SLAM.

The US Navy awarded a 0 million contract to Boeing in July 2011 for the production of about 60 Block II Harpoon missiles, including missiles for 6 foreign militaries.[4] Boeing lists 30 foreign navies as Block II customers.[4]

India acquired 24 Harpoon Block II missiles to arm its maritime strike Jaguar fighters in a deal worth 0 million through the Foreign Military Sales system.[5] In December 2010, the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) notified U.S. Congress of a possible sale of 21 additional AGM-84L HARPOON Block II Missiles and associated equipment, parts and logistical support for a complete package worth approximately 0 million; the Indian government intends to use these missiles on its Indian Navy P-8I Neptune maritime patrol aircraft.[6] Indian Navy is also planning to upgrade the fleet of four submarines- Shishumar class submarine – with tube-launched Harpoon missiles.[7]

Harpoon Block 2 missiles are designated AGM/RGM/UGM-84L.[citation needed]

Harpoon Block III[edit]

Harpoon Block III was intended to be an upgrade package to the existing USN Block 1C missiles and Command Launch Systems (CLS) for guided-missile cruisers, guided-missile destroyers, and the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet fighter aircraft. After experiencing an increase in the scope of required government ship integration, test and evaluation, and a delay in development of a data-link, the Harpoon Block III program was canceled by the U.S. Navy in April 2009. Cancellation of Block III however does not preclude the possibility of continued incremental upgrades to the Harpoon missile and launching suite in the future.

Operational history[edit]

Block I coastal missile defense system truck, in service in the Danish Navy 1988–2003.
In 1981 and 1982 there were two accidental launches of Harpoon missiles. One from USN and one from a Danish Navy frigate (Peder Skram-class) on 6 September 1982 which ended[clarification needed] in the recreational housing area Lumsås. The Danish missile was later known as the hovsa-missile (hovsa being the Danish term for oops).

In November 1980 during Operation Morvarid Iranian missile boats attacked and sank two Iraqi Osa-class missile boats; one of the weapons used was the Harpoon missile.

In 1986, the United States Navy sank at least two Libyan patrol boats in the Gulf of Sidra. Two Harpoon missiles were launched from the USS Yorktown with no confirmed results and several others from A-6 Intruder aircraft that were said to have hit their targets.[8][9] Initial reports claimed that the USS Yorktown scored hits on a patrol boat, but action reports indicated that the target may have been a false one and that no ships were hit by those missiles.[10]

In 1988, Harpoon missiles were used to sink the Iranian frigate Sahand during Operation Praying Mantis. Another was fired at the Kaman-class missile boat Joshan, but failed to strike because the fast attack craft had already been mostly sunk by RIM-66 Standard missiles. An Iranian-owned Harpoon missile was also fired at the guided missile cruiser USS Wainwright. The missile was successfully lured away by chaff.[11]

In December 1988, a Harpoon launched by an F/A-18 Hornet fighter from the aircraft carrier USS Constellation[12] killed one sailor when it struck the merchant ship Jagvivek, a 250 ft (76 m) long Indian-owned ship, during an exercise at the Pacific Missile Range near Kauai, Hawaii. A Notice to Mariners had been issued warning of the danger, but the Jagvivek left port before receiving the communication and subsequently strayed into the test range area, and the Harpoon missile, fortunately loaded just with an inert dummy warhead, locked onto it instead of its intended target.

In June 2009, it was reported by an American newspaper, citing unnamed officials from the Obama administration and the U.S. Congress, that the American government had accused Pakistan of illegally modifying some older Harpoon missiles to strike land targets. Pakistani officials denied this and they claimed that the US was referring to a new Pakistani-designed missile. Some international experts were also reported to be skeptical of the accusations. Robert Hewson, editor of Jane’s Air Launched Weapons, pointed out that the Harpoon is not suitable for the land-attack role due to deficiency in range. He also stated that Pakistan was already armed with more sophisticated missiles of Pakistani or Chinese design and, therefore, "beyond the need to reverse-engineer old US kit." Hewson offered that the missile tested by Pakistan was part of an undertaking to develop conventionally armed missiles, capable of being air- or surface-launched, to counter its rival India’s missile arsenal.[13][14][15] It was later stated that Pakistan and the US administration had reached some sort of agreement allowing US officials to inspect Pakistan’s inventory of Harpoon missiles,[16][17] and the issue had been resolved.[18]


Australia Anzac-class frigate, HMAS Toowoomba
[icon] This section requires expansion. (November 2010)

AustraliaRoyal Australian Air Force F/A-18 Hornet
F/A-18F Super Hornet
AP-3C Orion

Royal Australian Navy Adelaide class frigate
Anzac class frigate
Collins class submarine

BelgiumBelgian Navy Karel Doorman class frigate

BrazilBrazilian Air Force P-3AM

CanadaRoyal Canadian Air Force CF-18 Hornet
CP-140 Aurora

Royal Canadian Navy Halifax class frigate

ChileChilean Navy
DenmarkRoyal Danish Navy Absalon class support ship
Ivar Huitfeldt class frigate

EgyptEgyptian Air Force
Egyptian Navy
GermanyGerman Navy Sachsen class frigate (F124)
Bremen class frigate (F122)

GreeceHellenic Navy Elli class frigate
Hydra class frigate
Type 209 submarine, Glafkos class (1100) and Poseidon class (1200)
Papanikolis Type 214 class submarine

IranIslamic Republic of Iran Navy (nearly retired, most replaced by Russian-made AS-20 and Chinese-made C-802 ASMs)
IsraelIsraeli Air Force
Israeli Navy
IndiaIndian Navy (on Boeing P-8I Neptune multi-mission maritime aircraft)
JapanJapan Maritime Self Defense Force
Republic of KoreaRepublic of Korea Air Force F-15K

Republic of Korea Navy Sejong the Great Class destroyer
Chungmugong Yi Sun-shin class destroyer
Gwanggaeto the Great class destroyer
Son Won-Il class Submarine
Chang Bogo class Submarine

MalaysiaRoyal Malaysian Air Force
NetherlandsRoyal Netherlands Navy
PakistanPakistan Navy
PolandPolish Navy
PortugalPortuguese Navy
Saudi ArabiaRoyal Saudi Navy
SingaporeRepublic of Singapore Air Force
Republic of Singapore Navy
SpainSpanish Air Force
Spanish Navy
TaiwanRepublic of China Air Force
Republic of China Navy

British Type 23 frigate HMS Iron Duke firing a Harpoon ThailandRoyal Thai Navy
TurkeyTurkish Air Force
Turkish Navy
United Arab Emirates United KingdomRoyal Navy
Royal Air Force (retired)
United StatesUnited States Air Force
United States Navy
United States Coast Guard(retired)

General characteristics[edit]

Harpoon Block II test firing from USS Thorn.

UGM-84 submarine launch

AGM-84D being prepared for P-3 Orion weapons pylon.Primary function: Air-, surface-, or submarine-launched anti-surface (anti-ship) missile
Contractor: The McDonnell Douglas Astronautic Company – East
Power plant: Teledyne CAE J402 turbojet, 660 lb (300 kg)-force (2.9 kN) thrust, and a solid-propellant booster for surface and submarine launches
Length: Air-launched: 3.8 metres (12 ft)
Surface and submarine-launched: 4.6 metres (15 ft)

Weight: Air-launched: 519 kilograms (1,144 lb)
Submarine or ship launched from box or canister launcher: 628 kilograms (1,385 lb)

Diameter: 340 millimetres (13 in)
Wing span: 914 millimetres (36.0 in)
Maximum altitude: 910 metres (2,990 ft) with booster fins and wings
Range: Over-the-horizon (approx 50 nautical miles) AGM-84D (Block 1C): 220 km (120 nmi)
RGM/UGM-84D (Block 1C): 140 km (75 nmi)
AGM-84E (Block 1E) : 93 km (50 nmi)
AGM-84F (Block 1D): : 315 km (170 nmi)
RGM-84F (Block 1D): 278 km (150 nmi).
RGM/AGM-84L (Block 2): 278 km (150 nmi)
AGM-84H/K (Block 1G / Block 1J): 280 km (150 nmi)

Speed: High subsonic, around 850 km/h (460 knots, 240 m/s, or 530 mph)
Guidance: Sea-skimming cruise monitored by radar altimeter, active radar terminal homing
Warhead: 221 kilograms (487 lb), penetration high-explosive blast
Unit cost: US,200,000
Date deployed: Ship-launched (RGM-84A): 1977
Air-launched (AGM-84A): 1979
Submarine-launched (UGM-84A): 1981
SLAM (AGM-84E): 1990
SLAM-ER (AGM-84H): 1998 (delivery); 2000 (initial operational capability (IOC))
SLAM-ER ATA (AGM-84K): 2002 (IOC)